Glossary

American Indian Movement (AIM)

the Native American civil rights group responsible for the occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota, in 1973

Anti-Federalists

those who did not support ratification of the Constitution

Articles of Confederation

the first basis for the new nation’s government; adopted in 1781; created an alliance of sovereign states held together by a weak central government

Bill of Rights

the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution; most were designed to protect fundamental rights and liberties

Bradley effect

the difference between a poll result and an election result in which voters gave a socially desirable poll response rather than a true response that might be perceived as racist

Brown v. Board of Education

the 1954 Supreme Court ruling that struck down Plessy v. Ferguson and declared segregation and “separate but equal” to be unconstitutional in public education

Chicano

a term adopted by some Mexican American civil rights activists to describe themselves and those like them

Citizens United

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission was a 2010 Supreme Court case that granted corporations and unions the right to spend unlimited amounts of money on elections

Declaration of Independence

a document written in 1776 in which the American colonists proclaimed their independence from Great Britain and listed their grievances against the British king

Electoral College

the constitutionally created group of individuals, chosen by the states, with the responsibility of formally selecting the next U.S. president

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

the proposed amendment to the Constitution that would have prohibited all discrimination based on sex

Federalists

those who supported ratification of the Constitution

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)

a federal statute that requires public agencies to provide certain types of information requested by citizens

Great Compromise

a compromise between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan that created a two-house Congress; representation based on population in the House of Representatives and equal representation of states in the Senate

Jim Crow laws

state and local laws that promoted racial segregation and undermined black voting rights in the south after Reconstruction

Miranda warning

a statement by law enforcement officers informing a person arrested or subject to interrogation of his or her rights

New Jersey Plan

a plan that called for a one-house national legislature; each state would receive one vote

Patriot Act

a law passed by Congress in the wake of the 9/11 attacks that broadened federal powers to monitor electronic communications; the full name is the USA PATRIOT Act (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act)

Plessy v. Ferguson

the 1896 Supreme Court ruling that allowed “separate but equal” racial segregation under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment

Reconstruction

the period from 1865 to 1877 during which the governments of Confederate states were reorganized prior to being readmitted to the Union

Sherbert test

a standard for deciding whether a law violates the free exercise clause; a law will be struck down unless there is a “compelling governmental interest” at stake and it accomplishes its goal by the “least restrictive means” possible

Stonewall Inn

a bar in Greenwich Village, New York, where the modern Gay Pride movement began after rioters protested the police treatment of the LGBT community there

The Federalist Papers

a collection of eighty-five essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of ratification of the Constitution

Three-Fifths Compromise

a compromise between northern and southern states that called for counting of all a state’s free population and 60 percent of its slave population for both federal taxation and representation in Congress

Title IX

the section of the U.S. Education Amendments of 1972 that prohibits discrimination in education on the basis of sex

Trail of Tears

the name given to the forced migration of the Cherokees from Georgia to Oklahoma in 1838–1839

Virginia Plan

a plan for a two-house legislature; representatives would be elected to the lower house based on each state’s population; representatives for the upper house would be chosen by the lower house

affirmative action

the use of programs and policies designed to assist groups that have historically been subject to discrimination

agenda setting

the media’s ability to choose which issues or topics get attention

agent of political socialization

a person or entity that teaches and influences others about politics through use of information

association

groups of companies or institutions that organize around a common set of concerns, often within a given industry or trade

astroturf movement

a political movement that resembles a grassroots movement but is often supported or facilitated by wealthy interests and/or elites

ballot fatigue

the result when a voter stops voting for offices and initiatives at the bottom of a long ballot

bandwagon effect

increased media coverage of candidates who poll high

beat

the coverage area assigned to journalists for news or stories

bicameral legislature

a legislature with two houses, such as the U.S. Congress

bill of attainder

a legislative action declaring someone guilty without a trial; prohibited under the Constitution

bipartisanship

a process of cooperation through compromise

black codes

laws passed immediately after the Civil War that discriminated against freed slaves and other blacks and deprived them of their rights

block grant

a type of grant that comes with less stringent federal administrative conditions and provide recipients more latitude over how to spend grant funds

blue law

a law originally created to uphold a religious or moral standard, such as a prohibition against selling alcohol on Sundays

categorical grant

a federal transfer formulated to limit recipients’ discretion in the use of funds and subject them to strict administrative criteria

caucus

a form of candidate nomination that occurs in a town-hall style format rather than a day-long election; usually reserved for presidential elections

checks and balances

a system that allows one branch of government to limit the exercise of power by another branch; requires the different parts of government to work together

chronic minority

voters who belong to political parties that tend not to be competitive in national elections because they are too small to become a majority or because of the Electoral College system distribution in their state

citizen journalism

video and print news posted to the Internet or social media by citizens rather than the news media

civil disobedience

an action taken in violation of the letter of the law to demonstrate that the law is unjust

civil liberties

limitations on the power of government, designed to ensure personal freedoms

civil rights

guarantees of equal treatment by government authorities

classical liberalism

a political ideology based on belief in individual liberties and rights and the idea of free will, with little role for government

closed primary

an election in which only voters registered with a party may vote for that party’s candidates

coattail effect

the result when a popular presidential candidate helps candidates from his or her party win their own elections

collective good

a good such as public safety or clean air, often produced by government, that is generally available to the population as a whole

common goods

goods that all people may use but that are of limited supply

common-law right

a right of the people rooted in legal tradition and past court rulings, rather than the Constitution

communism

a political and economic system in which, in theory, government promotes common ownership of all property, means of production, and materials to prevent the exploitation of workers while creating an equal society; in practice, most communist governments have used force to maintain control

comparable worth

a doctrine calling for the same pay for workers whose jobs require the same level of education, responsibility, training, or working conditions

concurrent powers

shared state and federal powers that range from taxing, borrowing, and making and enforcing laws to establishing court systems

confederation

a highly decentralized form of government; sovereign states form a union for purposes such as mutual defense

conscientious objector

a person who claims the right to refuse to perform military service on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion

contract lobbyist

a lobbyist who works for a contract lobbying firm that represents clients before government

cooperative federalism

a style of federalism in which both levels of government coordinate their actions to solve national problems, leading to the blending of layers as in a marble cake

covert content

ideologically slanted information presented as unbiased information in order to influence public opinion

coverture

a legal status of married women in which their separate legal identities were erased

creeping categorization

a process in which the national government attaches new administrative requirements to block grants or supplants them with new categorical grants

critical election

an election that represents a sudden, clear, and long-term shift in voter allegiances

cultivation theory

the idea that media affect a citizen’s worldview through the information presented

de facto segregation

segregation that results from the private choices of individuals

de jure segregation

segregation that results from government discrimination

delegates

party members who are chosen to represent a particular candidate at the party’s state- or national-level nominating convention

democracy

a form of government where political power rests in the hands of the people

devolution

a process in which powers from the central government in a unitary system are delegated to subnational units

diffuse support

the widespread belief that a country and its legal system are legitimate

digital paywall

the need for a paid subscription to access published online material

direct action

civil rights campaigns that directly confronted segregationist practices through public demonstrations

direct democracy

a form of government where people participate directly in making government decisions instead of choosing representatives to do this for them

disenfranchisement

the revocation of someone’s right to vote

district system

the means by which electoral votes are divided between candidates based on who wins districts and/or the state

disturbance theory

the theory that an external event can lead to interest group mobilization

divided government

a condition in which one or more houses of the legislature is controlled by the party in opposition to the executive

double jeopardy

a prosecution pursued twice at the same level of government for the same criminal action

dual federalism

a style of federalism in which the states and national government exercise exclusive authority in distinctly delineated spheres of jurisdiction, creating a layer-cake view of federalism

due process clause

provisions of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments that limit government power to deny people “life, liberty, or property” on an unfair basis

early voting

an accommodation that allows voting up to two weeks before Election Day

economic liberty

the right of individuals to obtain, use, and trade things of value for their own benefit

efficacy

the belief that you make a difference and that government cares about you and your views

elastic clause

the last clause of Article I, Section 8, which enables the national government “to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying” out all its constitutional responsibilities

elite critique

the proposition that wealthy and elite interests are advantaged over those without resources

elite theory

claims political power rests in the hands of a small, elite group of people

eminent domain

the power of government to take or use property for a public purpose after compensating its owner; also known as the takings clause of the Fifth Amendment

enumerated powers

the powers given explicitly to the federal government by the Constitution (Article I, Section 8); power to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, raise and support armies, declare war, coin money, and conduct foreign affairs

equal protection clause

a provision of the Fourteenth Amendment that requires the states to treat all residents equally under the law

equal-time rule

an FCC policy that all candidates running for office must be given the same radio and television airtime opportunities

establishment clause

the provision of the First Amendment that prohibits the government from endorsing a state-sponsored religion; interpreted as preventing government from favoring some religious beliefs over others or religion over non-religion

ex post facto law

a law that criminalizes an act retroactively; prohibited under the Constitution

exclusionary rule

a requirement, from Supreme Court case Mapp v. Ohio, that evidence obtained as a result of an illegal search or seizure cannot be used to try someone for a crime

exit poll

an election poll taken by interviewing voters as they leave a polling place

fairness doctrine

a 1949 Federal Communications Commission (FCC) policy, now defunct, that required holders of broadcast licenses to cover controversial issues in a balanced manner

fascism

a political system of total control by the ruling party or political leader over the economy, the military, society, and culture and often the private lives of citizens

favorability poll

a public opinion poll that measures a public’s positive feelings about a candidate or politician

federal system

a form of government in which power is divided between state governments and a national government

federalism

an institutional arrangement that creates two relatively autonomous levels of government, each possessing the capacity to act directly on the people with authority granted by the national constitution

first-past-the-post

a system in which the winner of an election is the candidate who wins the greatest number of votes cast, also known as plurality voting

fragmentation

the result when a large interest group develops diverging needs

framing

the process of giving a news story a specific context or background

free exercise clause

the provision of the First Amendment that prohibits the government from regulating religious beliefs and practices

free rider problem

the situation that occurs when some individuals receive benefits (get a free ride) without helping to bear the cost

full faith and credit clause

found in Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution, this clause requires states to accept court decisions, public acts, and contracts of other states; also referred to as the comity provision

general revenue sharing

a type of federal grant that places minimal restrictions on how state and local governments spend the money

gerrymandering

the manipulation of legislative districts in an attempt to favor a particular candidate

glass ceiling

an invisible barrier caused by discrimination that prevents women from rising to the highest levels of an organization—including corporations, governments, academic institutions, and religious organizations

government

the means by which a society organizes itself and allocates authority in order to accomplish collective goals

grandfather clause

the provision in some southern states that allowed illiterate whites to vote because their ancestors had been able to vote before the Fifteenth Amendment was ratified

grassroots movement

a political movement that often begins from the bottom up, inspired by average citizens concerned about a given issue

hate crime

harassment, bullying, or other criminal acts directed against someone because of bias against that person’s sex, gender, sexual orientation, religion, race, ethnicity, or disability

heuristics

shortcuts or rules of thumb for decision making

horserace coverage

day-to-day media coverage of candidate performance in the election

hypodermic theory

the idea that information is placed in a citizen’s brain and accepted

idealogy

the beliefs and ideals that help to shape political opinion and eventually policy

immigration federalism

the gradual movement of states into the immigration policy domain traditionally handled by the federal government

in-house lobbyist

an employee or executive within an organization who works as a lobbyist on behalf of the organization

incumbency advantage

the advantage held by officeholders that allows them to often win reelection

incumbent

the current holder of a political office

indecency regulations

laws that limit indecent and obscene material on public airwaves

initiative

law or constitutional amendment proposed and passed by the voters and subject to review by the state courts; also called a proposition

inside lobbying

the act of contacting and taking the organization’s message directly to lawmakers in an attempt to influence policy

intense preferences

beliefs and preferences based on strong feelings regarding an issue that someone adheres to over time

intermediate scrutiny

the standard used by the courts to decide cases of discrimination based on gender and sex; burden of proof is on the government to demonstrate an important governmental interest is at stake in treating men differently from women

iron triangle

three-way relationship among congressional committees, interests groups, and the bureaucracy

issue network

a group of interest groups and people who work together to support a particular issue or policy

latent preferences

beliefs and preferences people are not deeply committed to and that change over time

leading question

a question worded to lead a respondent to give a desired answer

legislative liaison

a person employed by a governmental entity such as a local government, executive department, or university to represent the organization before the legislature

libel

printed information about a person or organization that is not true and harms the reputation of the person or organization

literacy tests

tests that required the prospective voter in some states to be able to read a passage of text and answer questions about it; often used as a way to disenfranchise racial or ethnic minorities

lobbyist

a person who represents an organization before government in an attempt to influence policy

majoritarian voting

a type of election in which the winning candidate must receive at least 50 percent of the votes, even if a run-off election is required

majority party

the legislative party with over half the seats in a legislative body, and thus significant power to control the agenda

majority rule

a fundamental principle of democracy; the majority should have the power to make decisions binding upon the whole

margin of error

a number that states how far the poll results may be from the actual preferences of the total population of citizens

mass media

the collection of all media forms that communicate information to the general public

material incentives

substantive monetary or physical benefits given to group members to help overcome collective action problems

membership organization

an interest group that usually consists of dues-paying members who organize around a particular cause or issue

midterm elections

the congressional elections that occur in the even-numbered years between presidential election years, in the middle of the president’s term

minimal effects theory

the idea that the media have little effect on citizens

minority party

the legislative party with less than half the seats in a legislative body

minority rights

protections for those who are not part of the majority

moderate

an individual who falls in the middle of the ideological spectrum

modern conservatism

a political ideology that prioritizes individual liberties, preferring a smaller government that stays out of the economy

modern liberalism

a political ideology focused on equality and supporting government intervention in society and the economy if it promotes equality

monarchy

a form of government where one ruler, usually a hereditary one, holds political power

muckraking

news coverage focusing on exposing corrupt business and government practices

natural rights

the right to life, liberty, and property; believed to be given by God; no government may take away

neopluralist

a person who suggests that all groups’ access and influence depend on the political environment

new federalism

a style of federalism premised on the idea that the decentralization of policies enhances administrative efficiency, reduces overall public spending, and improves outcomes

nullification

a doctrine promoted by John Calhoun of South Carolina in the 1830s, asserting that if a state deems a federal law unconstitutional, it can nullify it within its borders

obscenity

acts or statements that are extremely offensive by contemporary standards

oligarchy

a form of government where a handful of elite society members hold political power

open primary

an election in which any registered voter may vote in any party’s primary or caucus

outside lobbying

the act of lobbying indirectly by taking the organization’s message to the public, often through the use of the media and/or by issue press releases, in hopes that the public will then put pressure on lawmakers

overt content

political information whose author makes clear that only one side is presented

particularized benefit

a benefit that generally accrues to a narrow segment of society

partisanship

strong support, or even blind allegiance, for a particular political party

party identifiers

individuals who represent themselves in public as being part of a party

party organization

the formal structure of the political party and the active members responsible for coordinating party behavior and supporting party candidates

party platform

the collection of a party’s positions on issues it considers politically important

party polarization

the shift of party positions from moderate towards ideological extremes

party press era

period during the 1780s in which newspaper content was biased by political partisanship

party realignment

a shifting of party alliances within the electorate

party-in-government

party identifiers who have been elected to office and are responsible for fulfilling the party’s promises

party-in-the-electorate

members of the voting public who consider themselves part of a political party or who consistently prefer the candidates of one party over the other

personal politics

a political style that focuses on building direct relationships with voters rather than on promoting specific issues

platform

the set of issues important to the political party and the party delegates

plea bargain

an agreement between the defendant and the prosecutor in which the defendant pleads guilty to the charge(s) in question or perhaps to less serious charges, in exchange for more lenient punishment than if convicted after a full trial

pluralist

a person who believes many groups healthily compete for access to decision-makers

pluralist theory

claims political power rests in the hands of groups of people

plurality voting

the election rule by which the candidate with the most votes wins, regardless of vote share

political action committees (PACs)

organizations created to raise money for political campaigns and spend money to influence policy and politics

political culture

the prevailing political attitudes and beliefs within a society or region

political elite

a political opinion leader who alerts the public to changes or problems

political machine

an organization that secures votes for a party’s candidates or supports the party in other ways, usually in exchange for political favors such as a job in government

political parties

organizations made up of groups of people with similar interests that try to directly influence public policy through their members who seek and hold public office

political power

influence over a government’s institutions, leadership, or policies

political socialization

the process of learning the norms and practices of a political system through others and societal institutions

politics

the process by which we decide how resources will be allocated and which policies government will pursue

poll tax

annual tax imposed by some states before a person was allowed to vote

precinct

the lowest level of party organization, usually organized around neighborhoods

priming

the process of predisposing readers or viewers to think a particular way

prior restraint

a government action that stops someone from doing something before they are able to do it (e.g., forbidding someone to publish a book he or she plans to release)

private goods

goods provided by private businesses that can be used only by those who pay for them

privileges and immunities clause

found in Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution, this clause prohibits states from discriminating against out-of-staters by denying such guarantees as access to courts, legal protection, and property and travel rights

probable cause

legal standard for determining whether a search or seizure is constitutional or a crime has been committed; a lower threshold than the standard of proof needed at a criminal trial

proportional representation

a party-based election rule in which the number of seats a party receives is a function of the share of votes it receives in an election

public goods

goods provided by government that anyone can use and that are available to all without charge

public interest group

an interest group that seeks a public good, which is something that accrues to all

public opinion

a collection of opinions of an individual or a group of individuals on a topic, person, or event

public relations

biased communication intended to improve the image of people, companies, or organizations

purposive incentives

benefits to overcome collective action problems that appeal to people’s support of the issue or cause

push poll

politically biased campaign information presented as a poll in order to change minds

race-to-the-bottom

a dynamic in which states compete to attract business by lowering taxes and regulations, often to workers’ detriment

random sample

a limited number of people from the overall population selected in such a way that each has an equal chance of being chosen

rational basis test

the standard used by the courts to decide most forms of discrimination; the burden of proof is on those challenging the law or action to demonstrate there is no good reason for treating them differently from other citizens

reapportionment

the reallocation of House seats between the states to account for population changes

recall

the removal of a politician or government official by the voters

redistricting

the redrawing of electoral maps

referendum

a yes or no vote by citizens on a law or candidate proposed by the state government

reporter’s privilege

the right of a journalist to keep a source confidential

representative democracy

a form of government where voters elect representatives to make decisions and pass laws on behalf of all the people instead of allowing people to vote directly on laws

representative sample

a group of respondents demographically similar to the population of interest

republic

a form of government in which political power rests in the hands of the people, not a monarch, and is exercised by elected representatives

reserved powers

any powers not prohibited by the Constitution or delegated to the national government; powers reserved to the states and denied to the federal government

residency requirement

the stipulation that citizen must live in a state for a determined period of time before a citizen can register to vote as a resident of that state

revolving door laws

laws that require a cooling-off period before government officials can register to lobby after leaving office

right to privacy

the right to be free of government intrusion

safe seat

a district drawn so members of a party can be assured of winning by a comfortable margin

search warrant

a legal document, signed by a judge, allowing police to search and/or seize persons or property

selective incorporation

the gradual process of making some guarantees of the Bill of Rights (so far) apply to state governments and the national government

self-incrimination

an action or statement that admits guilt or responsibility for a crime

separation of powers

the sharing of powers among three separate branches of government

shadow campaign

a campaign run by political action committees and other organizations without the coordination of the candidate

social capital

connections with others and the willingness to interact and aid them

social contract

an agreement between people and government in which citizens consent to be governed so long as the government protects their natural rights

socialism

a political and economic system in which government uses its authority to promote social and economic equality, providing everyone with basic services and equal opportunities and requiring citizens with more wealth to contribute more

soft money

money that interests can spend on behalf of candidates without being restricted by federal law

soft news

news presented in an entertaining style

solidary incentives

benefits based on the concept that people like to associate with those who are similar to them

sorting

the process in which voters change party allegiances in response to shifts in party position

straight-ticket voting

the practice of voting only for candidates from the same party

straw poll

an informal and unofficial election poll conducted with a non-random population

strict scrutiny

the standard used by the courts to decide cases of discrimination based on race, ethnicity, national origin, or religion; burden of proof is on the government to demonstrate a compelling governmental interest is at stake and no alternative means are available to accomplish its goals

sunshine laws

laws that require government documents and proceedings to be made public

super PACs

officially known as Independent Expenditure-Only Committees; organizations that can fundraise and spend as they please to support or attack a candidate but not contribute directly to a candidate or strategize with a candidate’s campaign

supremacy clause

the statement in Article VI of the Constitution that federal law is superior to laws passed by state legislatures

symbolic speech

a form of expression that does not use writing or speech but nonetheless communicates an idea (e.g., wearing an article of clothing to show solidarity with a group)

theory of delegate representation

a theory that assumes the politician is in office to be the voice of the people and to vote only as the people want

third parties

political parties formed as an alternative to the Republican and Democratic parties, also known as minor parties

toll good

a good that is available to many people but is used only by those who can pay the price to do so

top-two primary

a primary election in which the two candidates with the most votes, regardless of party, become the nominees for the general election

totalitarianism

a form of government where government is all-powerful and citizens have no rights

traditional conservatism

a political ideology supporting the authority of the monarchy and the church in the belief that government provides the rule of law

two-party system

a system in which two major parties win all or almost all elections

understanding tests

tests requiring prospective voters in some states to be able to explain the meaning of a passage of text or to answer questions related to citizenship; often used as a way to disenfranchise black voters

undue burden test

a means of deciding whether a law that makes it harder for women to seek abortions is constitutional

unfunded mandates

federal laws and regulations that impose obligations on state and local governments without fully compensating them for the costs of implementation

unicameral legislature

a legislature with only one house, like the Confederation Congress or the legislature proposed by the New Jersey Plan

unitary system

a centralized system of government in which the subnational government is dependent on the central government, where substantial authority is concentrated

venue shopping

a strategy in which interest groups select the level and branch of government they calculate will be most receptive to their policy goals

veto

the power of the president to reject a law proposed by Congress

voter fatigue

the result when voters grow tired of voting and stay home from the polls

voting cues

sources—including fellow lawmakers, constituents, and interest groups—that lawmakers often use to help them decide how to vote, especially on unfamiliar issues

voting-age population

the number of citizens over eighteen

voting-eligible population

the number of citizens eligible to vote

white primary

a primary election in which only whites are allowed to vote

winner-take-all system

all electoral votes for a state are given to the candidate who wins the most votes in that state

writ of habeas corpus

a petition that enables someone in custody to petition a judge to determine whether that person’s detention is legal

yellow journalism

sensationalized coverage of scandals and human interest stories

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